History of Bali

History of Bali

Prehistoric times

The prehistoric era of Bali is the beginning of the history of Balinese society, which is characterized by the life of the people at that time who have not known writing. Although in prehistoric times it has not been known to write the writing of his life history, but the evidence of life in the community at that time can also recount the condition of prehistoric times took place in a long period of time, then the evidence that has been found up to now is certainly not Can meet all our expectations

Thanks to the diligent and skillful research of foreign experts, especially the Dutch and Indonesian sons, the development of prehistoric times in Bali is getting brighter. The concern for the weariness in Bali was first given by a naturalist named Georg Eberhard Rumpf, in 1705 which was published in his book Amboinsche Reteitkamer. As a pioneer in archeological research in Bali is W.O.J. Nieuwenkamp who visited Bali in 1906 as a painter. He traveled to explore Bali. And provide some notes, among others, about nekara Pejeng, Trunyan, and Pura Bukit Penulisan. Attention to this Pejeng nekara followed by K.C Crucq in 1932 who managed to find three parts mold nekara Pejeng in Pura Manuaba Village, Tegallalang.

The prehistoric research in Bali was followed by Dr. H.A.R. Van Heekeren with the result of writing entitled Sarcopagus on Bali in 1954. In 1963 prehistoric expert son of Indonesia Drs. R.P. Soejono did this digging carried out continuously in 1973, 1974, 1984, 1985. Based on the results of research that has been done on the findings from the shore of Gilimanuk Bay it is suspected that Gilimanuk site location is a fishing village from the perundagian era in Bali. In this place now stands a museum.

Based on the evidence that has been found to date in Bali, people's lives or Balinese in Balinese prehistory can be divided into:

  1. The period of hunting and gathering simple levels of food
  2. The period of hunting and gathering of advanced foods
  3. Cultivation period
  4. Labor Period

The period of hunting and gathering simple levels of food

Remnants of the earliest known cultures with studies conducted since 1960 are found in Sambiran (eastern Buleleng), as well as on the eastern and southeastern edge of Lake Batur (Kintamani) stone tools that are classified as hand-axes, axes impact, Shrink and so on. Stone tools found in both areas are now stored in the Museum Gedong Arca in Bedulu, Gianyar.

The life of the population at this time is very simple, completely dependent on the nature of the environment. They live wandering from one place to another (nomadic). The areas he chooses are areas with sufficient food and water supplies to ensure their survival. Life hunting is done by small groups and the results are shared. Hunting is done by men, because this job requires a lot of energy to deal with all the dangers that may occur. Women only served to complete light work such as collecting food from the natural surroundings. Until now there has been no evidence whether humans in those days have known the language as a tool to tell one another

Although the evidence in Bali is incomplete, the evidence found in Pacitan (East Java) may be used as a guide. Experts estimate that the stone tools of Pacitan that are contemporaries and have much in common with the stone tools of the Sembiran, are produced by the human kind. Pithecanthropus erectus or his descendants. Then maybe new tools from Sambiran are produced by Pithecanthropus or his descendants.

The period of hunting and gathering of advanced foods

At this time the lifestyle that comes from the past is still influential. Living hunting and collecting food contained in the surroundings continued to be evident from the form of tools made of stone, bones and shell. Evidence of human life in the mesolithic era was found in 1961 in Selonding Cave, Pecatu (Badung). This cave is located in the limestone mountains on the Benoa Peninsula. In this area there is a larger cave is the Coral Cave Boma, but this cave does not provide a proof of life that ever took place there. In Selonding Cave excavation found tools consisting of shale and drawn tools of stone and a number of tools of bone. Among the bone tools there are several muduk plot is a tool along the 5 cm that both ends are sharpened.

These tools are also found in a number of South Sulawesi caves at the level of cultural development of Toala and are well known in East Australia. Outside Bali was found painting the walls of the cave, which depicts the socio-economic life and public confidence of the time. The paintings on the wall of the cave or on the walls of the coral include the hand-stamped cap, the pig of the deer, the bird, the human, the boat, the sun symbol, the eye painting and so on. Some of the other paintings are more developed in later traditions and the meaning of being lighter also include lizard paintings such as those found on Seram Island and Papua, probably meaning magical powers considered to be the embodiment of the spirit of an ancestor or a tribal chief

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